Divina Commedia


Divina Commedia

Inferno

Alto Inferno
Basso Inferno
Frode
Tradimento

Purgatorio

Porta del Purgatorio
Cattivo Amore
Amore Incontrollato
Paradiso Terrestre

Paradiso

Cielo dei Pianeti
Cielo delle Stelle fisse
Cielo Cristallino
Empireo



The Barque of Dante - Eugène Delacroix


Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita


Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita
mi ritrovai per una selva oscura
che' la diritta via era smarrita.

Ahi quanto a dir qual era e` cosa dura
esta selva selvaggia e aspra e forte
che nel pensier rinova la paura!

Tant'e` amara che poco e` piu` morte;
ma per trattar del ben ch'i' vi trovai,
diro` de l'altre cose ch'i' v'ho scorte.

Io non so ben ridir com'i' v'intrai,
tant'era pien di sonno a quel punto
che la verace via abbandonai.

Ma poi ch'i' fui al pie` d'un colle giunto,
la` dove terminava quella valle
che m'avea di paura il cor compunto,

guardai in alto, e vidi le sue spalle
vestite gia` de' raggi del pianeta
che mena dritto altrui per ogne calle.

Allor fu la paura un poco queta
che nel lago del cor m'era durata
la notte ch'i' passai con tanta pieta.

E come quei che con lena affannata
uscito fuor del pelago a la riva
si volge a l'acqua perigliosa e guata,

cosi` l'animo mio, ch'ancor fuggiva,
si volse a retro a rimirar lo passo
che non lascio` gia` mai persona viva.



Inferno in Si Minor


Alto Inferno
Basso Inferno
Frode
Tradimento

Inferno – First Movement: Alto Inferno

Dante is in the dark forest and is attacked by three beasts that symbolize the three passions: lust, pride and greed. Finally appears Virgil the poet, sent by God, and he goes with him. Virgil will be his guide through Hell and Purgatory.
They arrive at the gates of Hell, where the inscription "Abandon all hope ye who enter here" is. Hell is shaped like an inverted cone, and has nine circles. In the lobby are the souls who lived without virtues or vices, to who the insects bite. They reach the river Acheron where is Charon the boatman, who carries souls.
So they come to Limbo, the first circle of Hell. There are the virtuous and innocents souls that could not be baptized. They are illustrious warriors, poets and sages. This is where Virgil resides. Later they find Minos, the judge of the dead, who decide to which circle the damneds go.
After passing Minos, they reach Lust, the second circle of Hell. The lusties go errant hit by a large wind. The third circle is Gluttony, where the gluttons are, whose penalty is to be stuck in the mud, while are tormented by a very strong rain mixed with hail. They are guarded by Cerberus, whose barking bothers them and afflicts them.
The fourth circle is Greed. The greedies are here, who accumulated possessions, and the prodigal, that squandered. Both push heavy weights in the opposite direction, so they clash against each other forever. There is the portrait of Fortune. The fifth circle is Anger. Here the irascible ones are in the marshy Styx lagoon, hitting and biting each other. Also here are the lazies, who are underwater and drowned in the mud. Phlegyas leads them across the Styx.

Inferno – Second Movement: Basso Inferno

They come to the city of Dis, and the demons close the doors. There come three furies to the poets and threaten them. Finally, an angel comes and opens the door. So they go to the sixth circle: Heresy. Heretics are involved in fiery tombs.
They get to the seventh circle: Violence. They see the Minotaur, keeping the circle. This circle is divided into three enclosures. The first enclosure is the one of violent against others, punished in the river Phlegethon, a river of boiling blood. The centaur Nessus helps Dante to pass the Phlegethon. The second enclosure is the forest of the suicides, where are the violents against themselves, the suicides, turned into trees, as it is unfair to give back to these souls what have taken from themselves. The trees are a metaphor for the mind of the suicide. The dissipators are chased by dogs. In the third enclosure are the violents against God, Nature and Society, I mean, blasphemers, sodomites, and usurers. They are in a burning desert with a rain of flames. The blasphemers are casted into the sand, the usurers sit, and the sodomites wander in groups.

Inferno – Third Movement: Frode

When they get to the edge of the abyss where is the eighth circle they see Geryon, the image of Fraud, who leads them to the next circle. The eighth circle is Fraud. It is divided into ten concentric ditches or Malebolge.
In the first pit are the ruffians and seducers, who are whipped by demons. In the second pit are the flatterers and courtiers, who are immersed in a source of filth. In the third pit are the simoniacs, which have their head buried in a pit with the head and their legs are devoured by the flames. In the fourth pit are the diviners, walking backwards with his head upside down. In the fifth pit are the dealers of justice, which are immersed in a lake of boiling pitch. The demons, armed with harpoons, attack the poets, but by order of his boss, they let them pass. These demons are the Malebranche, whose leader is Malacoda.
In the sixth pit are the hypocrites, walking inclined under the weight of cloaks of lead, golded in the exterior. In the seventh pit are the thieves, who are bitten by snakes. In the eighth pit are the evil counselors, which are turned into flames. In the ninth pit are the authors of scandals, schisms and heresies, which are constantly stabbed by the sword are a demon. In the tenth pit are the charlatans and liars, perjurers, alchemists, counterfeiters and imitators, who are sick of leprosy. There are three kinds of liars. Those who take the name or appearance of other people are chasing each other biting. The counterfeiters are suffering from dropsy and an unquenchable thirst. The slanderers are devoured by fever.

Inferno – Fourth Movement: Tradimento

Leaving the eighth circle they meet various giants. The giant Antaeus, catching the poets in their arms, lead them to the bottom of the ninth circle. Finally they reach the ninth circle, the circle of Treachery. It is the lowest circle of Hell. It is divided into four precincts, where are punished four kinds of traitors. All are submerged in the frozen lake Cocytus. The traitors are distinguished from fraudulent ones by the fact that his actions involve the act to lie someone with whom you have a special relationship.
The first enclosure is the Caïna, name given by Cain the fratricide. Here are those who have been traitors to their relatives. They are immersed in the ice up to their necks. The second enclosure is the Antenora, name given by Antenor of Troy, who betrayed his city in favor of the Greeks. Here are the traitors to their country, and are immersed in the ice up to the waist, with the upper part of the body exposed to the cold winds of hell, with the face up.
The third enclosure is the Ptolemaea, in honor to Ptolemy, son of Abobi, who invited Simon Maccabaeus and his son to a banquet and then killed them. They are traitors to their friends and guests. They are lying with the back part of the body immersed in the ice. The fourth enclosure is the Judecca, where are the traitors to their masters and benefactors, completely immersed in the ice. It was named by Judas Iscariot.
At the heart of the Judecca is Lucifer, immersed in a layer of ice to the waist. It's a huge trifronte that with his tremendous mouth continually chews the three major traitors in history: Gaius Cassius Longinus and Marcus Junius Brutus, the traitors of Julius Caesar and, in the central mouth, Judas Iscariot, the traitor of Jesus.
Finally, they go out of Hell and see the stars.



Purgatorio in Mi Minor


Porta del Purgatorio
Cattivo Amore
Amore Incontrollato
Paradiso Terrestre

Purgatorio – First Movement: Porta del Purgatorio

Coming out of Hell, they see the stars and the sunrise. They are on an island, and see the sea. There they found Cato of Utica, which allowed them to climb to Purgatory. Virgil washed Dante's face to purify it and put him a reed belt. At sunrise they see a boat with souls gliding through the sea, led to Purgatory by an angel. So they come to Purgatory. The two poets are prepared to climb the mountain of Purgatory, whose way is very painful. They meet the negligents, those who have waited to death to repent. There are also those who, having died violently, had time to repent and be reconciled to God. Also found the negligents that blinded by power and honors repent late. Night falls and the souls sing a hymn. When Dante wakes up from sleep at night, he is transported to the third landing of the mountain, where Virgil shows him the doors of Purgatory. The angel who guards the door opens it, and so they enter the Purgatory.

Purgatorio – Second Movement: Cattivo Amore

Purgatory is divided into seven steps or terraces. The first four refer to bad love, a love that reaches to hurt the beloved person, both the perverted and painful love of the first three steps and the poor love of fourth step.
The first terrace is the Pride, where there are sculptures and engravings with examples of humility and arrogance punished. The prouds are bearing heavy burdens, and have been bent by the weight of huge stones on their backs. The second terrace is the Envy, where they hear voices of invisible spirits recommending charity. The souls of the envious are reciting the litany of the saints. They are covered with sackcloth, and the eyelids are sewn with wire.
The third terrace is Anger​​. Examples of meekness are shown to Dante as visions. The souls of the wrathful walk in acre fumaroles, this symbolizes the blinding effect of anger. They come to the fourth terrace, Sloth or Laziness. Slothful ones are doomed to make incessant work, like running.

Purgatorio – Third Movement: Amore Incontrollato

The last three steps refer to excessive or disordered love of good things. The fifth terrace is Greed. The greedies lie face down on the floor unable to move. The mountain trembles and the souls sing Gloria in Excelsis, something that happens every time a soul ends its purification.
The sixth terrace is Gluttony. The gluttons, exhausted from hunger and thirst, chew the air. They reach a wonderful tree. Finally, an angel shows them the way to the next terrace. The seventh terrace is Lust, where the lustful are in flames. Advised by an angel, the poets pass through the flames and reach the last steps. Finally, they reach the peak of the mountain of Purgatory, where Virgil leaves Dante free to do what he wants without asking permission.

Purgatorio – Fourth Movement: Paradiso Terrestre

There in the peak the poets go into the jungle ahead of the Earthly Paradise or Garden of Eden, where they stand in the river Lethe. On the opposite bank is Matilda, who was singing and picking flowers. Following Matilda, appears a procession where was a triumphal chariot drawn by a griffin which stopped before Dante.
There was Beatrice, the platonic love of Dante. Virgil leaves, because his job is done. Beatriz rebukes Dante, who then, turning to the angels, he regrets the life he has had, abusing the gifts of nature and grace. Dante respond to Beatrice with the confession of all his faults, after which he faints. Matilda submerges Dante in the Lethe and makes him drink the water.
Dante follows Matilda to the glorious procession and reaches a soaring tree. Finally, guided by Matilda, he drinks the fresh waters of Eunoe, and he is purified. After that, he can now rise to the stars.



Paradiso in Do Major


Cielo dei Pianeti
Cielo delle Stelle fisse
Cielo Cristallino
Empireo

Paradiso – First Movement: Cielo dei Pianeti

Paradise is an intangible, ethereal world, divided into nine heavens. The first seven heavens are named by the celestial bodies of the Solar System. So, Dante ascends to heaven after being purified, and now the guide is Beatrice. The hierarchy is that the first heavens are further away from the glory of God. The heavens are named as spheres.
The first sphere is the Moon. There are the inconstant, the souls that not entirely fulfilled the vows made to God, so, they enjoy with minor degree of glory. They come the Mansion of the Blessed. The second sphere is Mercury, where are the ambitious, who made good by the desire of to get fame, but because of their ambition they failed in the virtue of justice. They reach the third sphere, Venus, where are the lovers, the souls inclined to love, but that failed in temperance. Happens a presentation of the order in which God created the universe.
The fourth sphere is the Sun. Here are the sages, wises, who helped to light up the world intellectually. The souls form a crown and go round singing. The fifth sphere is Mars, where are the warriors of faith who gave their lives for God. The souls are arranged on a greek cross, comparison to the Milky Way. The sixth sphere is Jupiter, where are the good governors, the just rulers, who have rightly administered justice. The seventh sphere is Saturn, and here are the contemplatives, who were devoted to the contemplative life.
Finally, Dante rises to the starry heaven, where he directs the sight to the planets and the Earth.

Paradiso – Second Movement: Cielo delle Stelle fisse

After passing the seventh sphere, Saturn, they reach the eighth sphere, the Starry Heaven or Heaven of fixed stars. It represents faith, hope, and love. Jesus Christ and the Holy Mary descend from above, surrounded by countless angels and saints. The Archangel Gabriel descends like a flame and put a crown to Mary, who, after Jesus Christ, comes back up to the Empyrean.
Saint Peter asks some questions to Dante about Faith. Apostle Santiago examines Dante about Hope. Saint John the Evangelist says that his remains were left on Earth. Finally, Saint John examines Dante on Charity. The examination continues on the next movement.

Paradiso – Third Movement: Cielo cristallino

To his responses applauds all the Heavenly Court three times shouting "Saint!". Dante sees Adam. Finally, Dante rises with Beatrice up the next heaven.
The ninth sphere is the Crystalline Heaven or Primum Mobile. The Primum Mobile is the largest sphere of the physical universe. God moves it directly, causing that by reaction, move all the other spheres it contains. The Primum Mobile is the home of the angels, and there Dante sees God as an intense point of light surrounded by nine rings of angels. Beatrice explains the creation of the universe and the role of angels, ending with a severe criticism of preachers of that time. Dante announces that it has been allowed to see the divine essence.

Paradiso – Fourth Movement: Empireo

Finally they rise to the tenth sphere, the Empyrean. It is a region that is beyond physical existence. It is the home of God. Beatrice, who represents theology, becomes in this place more beautiful than ever, and Dante gets involved by the light, so he is able to see God.
Dante clearly see the triumph of angels and blessed souls. Beatriz makes him contemplate the magnitude of the City of God. Meanwhile, Dante contemplates the general form of Paradise. Saint Bernard leads the poet. Dante sees the celestial rose that symbolizes the divine love, whose petals are enthroned souls of the faithful of the Testaments. There are angels flying around like bees, spreading peace and love. Beatriz goes up to take the seat she deserves in the celestial rose.
Finally, Dante comes into direct contact with God, who appears as three identical circles occupying the same space, which represent the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Inside, he sees the human form of Christ. Dante tries to understand how the circles fit together, and how the humanity of Christ refers to the divinity of the sun. After a ray of understanding, which can not explain the poet, Dante understands, and his soul is in total harmony with the divine love.


No hay comentarios:

Publicar un comentario